Keeping XCTest in sync on Linux


  1. Mar 30, 2017
    Added a footnote referencing the bug that tracks progress on this issue. Added an appendix describing an alternative solution using code generation.
  2. Mar 31, 2017
    Modified the Sourcery template to specify the target path of the generated file. This saves a manual renaming step.
  3. Apr 23, 2017
    Removed the final step (deleting a build artifact) from the Sourcery setup instructions. Sourcery 0.6.0 doesn’t create empty files anymore.
  4. Jul 7, 2017
    Updated the code to make it compile on Swift 3 and 4. This required wrapping one line in a conditional compilation block because defaultTestSuite has been changed from a method to a property in the iOS 11/macOS 10.13 SDKs.
  5. May 31, 2018
    Added a note about a new SwiftPM command, swift test --generate-linuxmain (new in Swift 4.1).

Swift is cross-platform, but it behaves differently on Apple platforms vs. all other operating systems, mainly for two reasons:

  • The Objective-C runtime is only available on Apple platforms.
  • Foundation and the other core libraries have separate implementations for non-Apple OSes. This means some Foundation APIs may produce divergent results on macOS/iOS and Linux (though the stated goal is implementation parity), or they may simply not be fully implemented yet.

Therefore, when you write a library that doesn’t depend on any Apple-specific functionality, it’s a good idea to test your code on macOS/iOS and Linux.

Test discovery on Linux

Any unit testing framework must be able to find the tests it should run. On Apple platforms, the XCTest framework uses the Objective-C runtime to enumerate all test suites and their methods in a test target. Since the Objective-C runtime is not available on Linux and the Swift runtime currently lacks equivalent functionality, XCTest on Linux requires the developer to provide an explicit list of tests to run.

The allTests property

The way this works (by convention established by the Swift Package Manager) is that you add an additional property named allTests to each of your XCTestCase subclasses, which returns an array of test functions and their names. For example, a class containing a single test might look like this:

// Tests/BananaKitTests/BananaTests.swift
import XCTest
import BananaKit

class BananaTests: XCTestCase {
    static var allTests = [
        ("testYellowBananaIsRipe", testYellowBananaIsRipe),

    func testYellowBananaIsRipe() {
        let banana = Banana(color: .yellow)


The package manager creates another file named LinuxMain.swift that acts as the test runner on non-Apple platforms. It contains a call to XCTMain(_:) in which you must list all your test suites:

// Tests/LinuxMain.swift
import XCTest
@testable import BananaKitTests


Manual maintenance is easy to forget

This approach is obviously not ideal because it requires manual maintenance in two places:

  1. Every time you add a new test, you must also add it to its class’s allTests.
  2. Every time you create a new test suite, you must add it to the XCTMain call in LinuxMain.swift.

Both of these steps are easy to forget. Even worse, when you inevitably forget one of them it’s not at all obvious that something is wrong — your tests will still pass on Linux, and unless you manually compare the number of executed tests on macOS vs. Linux you might not even notice that some tests didn’t run on Linux.

This happened to me numerous times, so I decided to do something about it.

Swift 4.1 can update allTests for you

UpdateMay 31, 2018: Swift 4.1 includes a new package manager command for keeping the list of tests for Linux up to date. You can invoke it like this:

> swift test --generate-linuxmain

This will build the test target and then generate the code for the required __allTests properties in a separate XCTestManifests.swift file. Note that the command internally still uses the Objective-C runtime for test discovery, so you have to run it on macOS.

And you have to automate this step as part of your build process — otherwise you run the risk of your Linux and Darwin tests running out of sync. Installing a safeguard that warns you when this happens is still a good idea. Therefore, I believe the rest of this article also applies to Swift 4.1, although you may have to adjust some names (Swift switched from allTests to __allTests).

Safeguarding Linux tests against omissions

Let’s try to build a mechanism that automatically causes the test suite to fail when we forget one of the maintenance steps. We’re going to add the following test to each of our XCTestCase classes (and to their allTests arrays):

class BananaTests: XCTestCase {
    static var allTests = [
        // Your other tests here...

    func testLinuxTestSuiteIncludesAllTests() {
        #if os(macOS) || os(iOS) || os(tvOS) || os(watchOS)
            let thisClass = type(of: self)
            let linuxCount = thisClass.allTests.count
            #if swift(>=4.0)
                let darwinCount = thisClass
                let darwinCount = Int(thisClass
            XCTAssertEqual(linuxCount, darwinCount,
                "\(darwinCount - linuxCount) tests are missing from allTests")

    // Your other tests here...

This test compares the number of items in the allTests array to the number of tests discovered by the Objective-C runtime and will fail if it finds a discrepancy between the two, which is exactly what we want.

(The dependency on the Obj-C runtime means the test only works on Apple platforms — it won’t even compile on Linux, which is why we need to wrap it in the #if os(macOS) ... block.1)

A failing test when you forget to add a test to allTests

To test this out, let’s add another test, this time “forgetting” to update allTests:

import XCTest
import BananaKit

class BananaTests: XCTestCase {
    static var allTests = [
        ("testYellowBananaIsRipe", testYellowBananaIsRipe),
        // testGreenBananaIsNotRipe is missing!

    // ...

    func testGreenBananaIsNotRipe() {
        let banana = Banana(color: .green)

When we now run the tests on macOS, our safeguard test will fail:

Xcode showing the failing test
The safeguard test is failing because we forgot to add one test to the allTests array.

I really like this. Obviously, it only works if you want the allTests array to contain every test, i.e. you’ll have to wrap any Darwin- or Linux-specific tests in conditional compilation blocks as we did above. I believe this is an acceptable limitation for most code bases.

Safeguarding LinuxMain.swift

What about the other problem, verifying that LinuxMain.swift is complete? This is harder. LinuxMain.swift is not (and cannot be) part of the actual test target, so you can’t easily verify what gets passed into XCTMain.

Xcode showing build errors when you add LinuxMain.swift to the test target.
The errors you get when you try to add LinuxMain.swift to the test target.

The only solution I can see would be to add a Run Script build phase to your test target and have the script parse the code in LinuxMain.swift and somehow compare the number of items in the array to the number of test suites in the test target. I haven’t tried it, but it sounds quite complicated.

Update: See the appendix for a possible solution using code generation.


Even with the new test, things are far from perfect since there are still two things you can potentially forget. Every time you create a new XCTestCase class, you must:

  1. Copy and paste the testLinuxTestSuiteIncludesAllTests test into the new class.
  2. Update LinuxMain.swift.

Still, I think this is considerably better than the status quo because the new test covers the most common case — adding a single test to an existing test suite and forgetting to update the allTests array.

I can’t wait for Swift’s reflection capabilities to become more powerful2, making all this unnecessary.

Appendix: Code generation with Sourcery

In what seems to be a recurring theme lately, Krzysztof Zabłocki pointed out that his excellent code generation tool Sourcery can also maintain the Linux test infrastructure for you. This is a great alternative and fairly easy to set up. Here’s how:

  1. Install Sourcery. Adding it as a Swift Package Manager dependency didn’t work for me (build failed), but I suspect that’s a temporary problem related to Swift 3.1 being brand new. I ended up downloading the latest release and running the binary directly.

  2. Create a file named LinuxMain.stencil with the following contents. Save it in a convenient place inside your project folder — I put mine in a sourcery/ subdirectory:

    // sourcery:file:Tests/LinuxMain.swift
    import XCTest
    {{ argument.testimports }}
    {% for type in types.classes|based:"XCTestCase" %}
    {% if not type.annotations.disableTests %}extension {{ }} {
      static var allTests = [
      {% for method in type.methods %}{% if method.parameters.count == 0 and method.shortName|hasPrefix:"test" %}  ("{{ method.shortName }}", {{ method.shortName }}),
      {% endif %}{% endfor %}]
    {% endif %}{% endfor %}
    {% for type in types.classes|based:"XCTestCase" %}{% if not type.annotations.disableTests %}  testCase({{ }}.allTests),
    {% endif %}{% endfor %}])
    // sourcery:end

    This is based on a template written by Ilya Puchka. I just added the // sourcery:... annotations in the first and last lines, which determine the path of the generated file (requires Sourcery 0.5.9).

    As you can see, this is Swift code mixed with a templating language. When you invoke Sourcery, it will parse the types in your projects source code and use them to generate code according to the template(s) you pass in. For example, the loop beginning with {% for type in types.classes|based:"XCTestCase" %} will iterate over all classes that inherit from XCTestCase and generate an extension containing the allTests property for them.

  3. Delete the existing definitions for allTests from your test classes. We’ll generate them with Sourcery in the next step. If you’ve already added testLinuxTestSuiteIncludesAllTests methods, you can delete them too or choose to leave them in. They don’t hurt and may still detect issues, e.g. when you don’t run Sourcery again after adding a test, but they aren’t strictly necessary anymore.

  4. Run Sourcery from your project directory:

    $ sourcery --sources Tests/ \
        --templates sourcery/LinuxMain.stencil \
        --args testimports='@testable import BananaKitTests'
    Scanning sources...
    Found 1 types.
    Loading templates...
    Loaded 1 templates.
    Generating code...
    Processing time 0.0301569700241089 seconds

    This will overwrite the existing Tests/LinuxMain.swift file with this generated code:

    // Generated using Sourcery 0.5.9 —
    // DO NOT EDIT
    import XCTest
    @testable import BananaKitTests
    extension BananaTests {
      static var allTests = [
        ("testYellowBananaIsRipe", testYellowBananaIsRipe),
        ("testGreenBananaIsNotRipe", testGreenBananaIsNotRipe),

    In our minimal example there’s only a single class with two tests, but this will also work for multiple test classes.

And that’s it. Add the command that invokes Sourcery to a script that you run on every build and your Linux tests will always be up to date. Very cool!

  1. I don’t know of a more concise way than this for checking that we’re on an Apple platform. Once SE-0075 (accepted but not implemented yet) lands, we should be able to replace this with #if canImport(Darwin)↩︎

  2. Reflection (i.e. test discovery at runtime) is not the only way to tackle this problem. The bug tracking test discovery on Linux is SR-710, and after thorough discussion in the spring of 2016 it was decided to rely on SourceKit (i.e. source code parsing) for finding test methods. Porting SourceKit to Linux was and is a huge task, but as far as I can tell major progress has been made recently, so maybe the situation around testing on Linux will improve in Swift 4. ↩︎